International workshop on 

AEROSOLS FROM SMALL SCALE BIOMASS COMBUSTION PLANTS

Thursday, 27 January 2011, 14.00 - 19.15

Workshop rationale and aim

Most recently, fine particulate pollution gave rise to debate in numerous European countries as concentration limits were overstepped more frequently and more clearly than in the past. Urban areas were especially affected. Industry, traffic, agriculture and residential heating proof mainly responsible for high fine particulate emission levels. In Austria for instance, within the residential heating sector small-scale biomass combustion plants are responsible for about 88% of the PM10 emissions, most of them (about 86%) are poorly controlled old biomass combustion systems.

Compared to oil or natural gas, biomass contains a considerable amount of ash. This inevitably leads to fly ash emissions during combustion. In medium and large-scale biomass combustion systems fly ash emissions are typically efficiently precipitated by appropriate filters (ESP or baghouse filters). Small-scale (residential) biomass combustion plants however, are not equipped with filters due to economic reasons and the immature status of the technology. Fly ash emissions of complete biomass combustion, which is usually achieved by modern and automatically controlled small-scale biomass combustion plants, consist mainly of inorganic aerosols and are related to the PM1 fraction (particulate matter with a particle size smaller 1.0 µm). Carbonaceous aerosols are a product of incomplete combustion, which is often the case in poorly controlled old biomass combustion systems or natural draught systems (like chimney stoves or tiled stoves), and consist of elementary carbon (soot) or condensed hydrocarbon compounds (organic aerosols). Moreover, old residential heating systems emit considerably higher PM1 emissions than modern small-scale biomass combustion systems. The formation of carbonaceous aerosols can be notably reduced by technical measures concerning combustion and process control technology (primary measures). The formation of inorganic aerosols however cannot be significantly prevented in the same way but needs new “Low-Dust combustion” technologies or requires secondary measures such as dust precipitators.

Fine particulate matter is the thoracic fraction out of total particulate matter, i.e. the fraction that can pass the larynx and reach the lung. There is strong epidemiologic indication that particulate matter in air has serious adverse health effects, but there are also indications that there exist considerable differences regarding the toxicological effects between inorganic aerosols and carbonaceous aerosols, which is of great relevance for the environmental evaluation of different small-scale biomass combustion technologies.

The workshop accommodated the aforementioned issues by its three key topics "Low-Dust combustion technologies", "Small-scale precipitators" and "Health effects" and thus gave a comprehensive overview of ongoing developments and recent findings.The event took place as a parallel session within the 3rd Central European Biomass Conference 2011 in Graz, Austria.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENTATIONS

Presentations

Time

Topic

Lecture / speaker

14:00

Welcome address

Martina Ammer
Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna, Austria

14:05

Introduction

Chairman: Ingwald Obernberger

14:10

Low-dust technologies

The effect of gasification-combustion technology on emissions
Jorma Jokiniemi, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

14:40

Low-dust technologies

Primary measures for low-dust combustion - relevant findings
Thomas Brunner, BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME Gmbh, BE2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria

15:10

Low-dust technologies

Reduction of particle emissions by using additives
Linda S. Bäfver, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boras, Sweden

15:40

Small-scale precipitators

Evaluation of small-scale precipitators in Denmark - results of lab- / field tests
Ole Schleicher, FORCE Technology, Brøndby, Denmark

16:10

 

Coffee break

16:30

Small-scale precipitators

Electrostatic precpitators for small-scale wood combustion systems - results from lab- and field tests
Hans Hartmann, TFZ, Straubing, Germany

17:00

Small-scale precipitators

Characterisation of particles from wood combustion with respect to health relevance and electrostatic precipitation
Thomas Nussbaumer, Verenum, Switzerland

17:30

Health effects

Development of a measurement methode for health effects of PM-emissions from biomass combustion and evaluation of results achieved
Volker Lenz, German Biomass Research Center, Leipzig

18:00

Health effects

Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion
Thomas Brunner, BE2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria

18:30

Health effects

Health related toxicological effects of aerosols from small-scale biomass combustion systems
Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Department of Environmental Health, University of Eastern Finland

19:00

Closing

Chairman: Ingwald Obernberger

Organised in cooperation with :